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What is Types of Aluminum? Application for Aluminum CNC machining

Aluminum type

This article takes an in-depth look at the types of aluminum.

Read further and learn more about:

What is Aluminum?

Aluminum Grades
Applications of Aluminum Grades
Types of Aluminum Products
And much more…
Stacked Aluminum Coil

Chapter 1: What is Aluminum?

Aluminum is the most abundant metal in Earth’s crust but rarely exists in elemental form. The various forms of aluminum and its alloys are valued for their low density and high strength-to-weight ratio, durability, and corrosion resistance. Since aluminum is 2.5 times less dense than steel, it is an excellent alternative to steel in applications requiring mobility and portability.

The many aluminum alloys are ductile and malleable, making them easy to form and machine. They are good electrical and thermal conductors with non-sparking and non-magnetic properties. Aluminum is recyclable, with a low re-melting temperature that requires 5% of the energy needed to produce the primary metal. Seventy-five percent of aluminum can be recovered for reuse without losing its properties, which makes aluminum sustainable and environmentally friendly.

Aluminum Products

Chapter 2: Aluminum Grades
Pure aluminum is combined with different alloying elements to modify its mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and formability and machinability, which determines the various grades. The Aluminum Association created and is responsible for maintaining the nomenclature for the standard aluminum grades, which are categorized according to their main alloying element and mechanical and thermal treatment response.

There are two main classifications of aluminum alloys: wrought and cast aluminum. Each classification has a different identification numbering system to distinguish it. Wrought and cast aluminum are differentiated by how they are processed, with cast aluminum being melted and poured into a mold, while wrought aluminum is worked in solid form.

The different manufacturing processes produce grades of aluminum alloys with unique properties. The classifications add to the difficulty of determining which grade of aluminum to use for a project. Cast aluminum has a higher percentage of alloying material, while wrought aluminum has greater tensile strength.

Wrought Aluminum
Wrought aluminum has exceptional mechanical strength and can be formed into many shapes. It is produced by smelting aluminum ingots with a measured amount of an alloying metal, resulting in the grade’s composition. The smelted aluminum alloy is cast into billets or slabs and mechanically processed by rolling, forging, or extrusion. Heat treatment further improves the aluminum alloy’s natural properties.

The advantages of wrought aluminum include:

Exceptional mechanical properties
Structural integrity without defects
Smooth, even surface finish
Excellent weldability and machinability
Formability – can be transformed, shaped, machined, and extruded into any possible shape.
A four-digit number code identifies each wrought aluminum grade:

The first digit indicates the primary alloying element added to the pure aluminum. The primary alloying element affects the grade’s properties in a series.
The second digit refers to the modification of an alloy. The modifications are registered with the IADS, which requires specific documentation. If the designated number is zero, the alloy is original or unmodified.
The third and fourth digits are arbitrary numbers assigned to a specific alloy in the series. For the 1000 series, these digits indicate the purity of the alloy.
The table below summarizes the wrought aluminum series. Series 1000 is the purest form of aluminum with the lowest yield and tensile strength, while the 7000 series, with alloys of magnesium, zinc, and copper, has the highest tensile and yield strength.

Wrought Aluminum Series
Temper Composition Tensile Strength (MPa) Yield Strength (MPa)
1000 Series 99.00%-99.99% Aluminum 82-166 28-152
2000 Series 2.2%-6.8% Copper 110-283 41-248
3000 Series 0.3%-1.5% Manganese 110-283 41-248
4000 Series 3.6%-13.5% Silicon 172-414 45-180
0.1%-4.7% Copper
0.05%-5.5% Magnesium
5000 Series 0.05%-5.5% Magnesium 124-352 41-345
6000 Series 0.2%-18% Silicon 124-310.3 55.2-276
0.35%-1.5% Magnesium
7000 Series 0.8%-8.2% Zinc 228-572 103-503
0.1%-3.4% Magnesium
0.05%-2.6% Copper
The following are the series of wrought aluminum grades:

1000 series
The 1000 series is non-heat treatable and contains at least 99.0% aluminum with no significant alloying elements. Aluminum grades under this series have excellent corrosion resistance and the highest electrical and thermal conductivity. Due to its ductility and relative softness, series 1000 is formable and work hardens slowly. It is suitable for processes requiring severe deformation. Series 1000 is weldable with a narrow melting range that must be considered. A significant drawback to the 1000 series is its very limited yield and tensile strength.

Aluminum 1100 is the most common grade and highest mechanical strength in the 1000 series and is composed of pure commercial aluminum. It has good electrical and thermal conductivity, making it suitable for heat sinks and heat exchange equipment. Its excellent forming properties make it suitable for cold working processes such as drawing, bending, spinning, stamping, and roll forming.
The ductility of series 1100 makes it ideal for being annealed in temper conditioning. It can be formed into wires, plates, foils, bars, and strips. The ductility of the 1100 series makes it easy to be cold worked and formed using extrusion or progressive bending, with hot forming a possibility due to its low melting point.
Series 1100 can be easily welded using conventional welding methods, including resistance welding. It is not suitable for high-pressure applications. Like most alloys in this series, Aluminum 1100 can only be hardened by cold working, not heat treatment.
Aluminum 1350 is known for its high electrical conductivity and is used for producing transformers and switchgears. As with all 1000 series alloys, aluminum 1350 has an exceptionally high aluminum content. It has good formability, making it ideal for producing electronics.
2000 Series
2000 series aluminum grades contain 0.7-6.8% copper and small amounts of silicon, manganese, magnesium, and other elements. Copper is the alloying element for these grades; it imparts additional strength and hardness, improving their machinability. The high strength of these grades is maintained at a wide range of temperatures.

2000 series aluminum grades are high-performance and high-strength alloys; hence, they are suitable for aircraft and aerospace applications. However, the addition of copper also decreases ductility and corrosion resistance.

The 2000 series are heat-treatable aluminum grades. Precipitation hardening can be performed to increase their strength. The precipitation of the intermetallic Al2Cu during heat treatment increases the hardness of the alloy. However, the intermetallic compounds can make these grades challenging to weld. Some 2000 series grades are not suitable for arc welding because of their susceptibility to hot cracking and stress corrosion cracking.

Aluminum 2011 is a free-machining alloy. It has excellent machinability properties (i.e., it generates small chips and gives a better surface finish), making it suitable for high-speed lathing. This grade is a highly versatile alloy. However, it has poor corrosion resistance, which can be solved by coating or anodizing. They are not recommended for forming and welding.
Aluminum 2024 is one of the most widely known high-strength aluminum alloys. This alloy has good fracture resistance, fracture toughness, and low fracture crack growth. It is ideal for heavy-duty applications under stress for prolonged periods. However, it also has poor corrosion resistance, which can be mitigated by cladding or anodizing.
3000 Series
3000 series aluminum grades contain 0.05-1.5% manganese, the main alloying element. Manganese gives the alloy higher mechanical strength than pure aluminum, which is maintained at a wide range of temperatures. They have good corrosion resistance, high ductility, and formability. They are non-heat-treatable and can be hardened by cold working. Finally, they are suitable for welding.

Aluminum 3003 is the most widely used aluminum grade, containing 1.5% manganese and 0.1% copper. It has the excellent mechanical properties of Aluminum 1100 with 20% higher tensile strength. This grade can be deep drawn, spun, welded, and brazed.
Aluminum 3005 has good elongation, corrosion resistance, and processing performance and can be smelted into alloys with different hardnesses. It is widely used to manufacture coils and strips in multiple tempers, with thicknesses of 0.1 mm up to 50 mm. Aluminum 3005 is commonly included in wet applications, such as refrigerators and air conditioners, as well as building materials and colored aluminum.
4000 Series
4000 series aluminum grades contain 3.6-13.5% silicon and small amounts of copper and magnesium. Silicon is the main alloying element; it lowers the alloy’s melting point, resulting in improved fluidity during the molten state. This makes the 4000 series grades good filler material for welding and brazing.

Some grades under the 4000 series are heat-treatable depending on the amounts of copper and magnesium in the alloy. Such additions will give a favorable response to heat treatment. The heat-treatable grades can be used for welding if combined with the aluminum grades under a heat-treatable series.

5000 Series
5000 series aluminum grades contain 0.5-5.5% magnesium. They are non-heat-treatable, can be hardened by cold working, have moderate-to-high strength, and have high ductility when annealed. Series 5000 aluminums are weldable, with corrosion and alkaline resistance.

The grades in the 5000 series have 3.5% magnesium and are not suitable for high-temperature applications since they are prone to stress corrosion. Series 5000 grades are referred to as marine grades of aluminum due to their resistance to corrosion caused by exposure to salt water.

Aluminum 5005 is used in general sheet metal work. This grade has good formability and is easy to bend, spin, draw, stamp, and roll form. It has good corrosion resistance and can withstand marine environments.
Aluminum 5083 contains traces of manganese and chromium. It is highly resistant to most industrial chemicals and seawater. It retains its high strength after welding.
Aluminum 5052 has the highest strength among the non-heat-treatable aluminum grades. It exhibits good finishing qualities and offers better resistance to marine environments than other aluminum grades. It can be drawn and formed into intricate shapes due to its excellent workability.
6000 Series
6000 series aluminum grades contain 0.2-1.8% silicon and 0.35-1.5% magnesium as the major alloying elements. These grades can be solution heat-treated to increase their yield strength. The precipitation of magnesium-silicide during aging hardens the alloy. A high silicon content enhances precipitation hardening, which can result in reduced ductility. Still, this effect may be reversed by adding chromium and manganese, which depresses recrystallization during heat treatment. These grades are challenging to weld because of their sensitivity to solidification cracking, so proper welding techniques must be employed.

Aluminum 6061 is the most versatile among the heat-treatable aluminum alloys. It has excellent formability (using bending, deep drawing, and stamping), good corrosion resistance, and can be welded using any method, including arc welding. The alloying elements of 6061 make it resistant to corrosion and stress cracking, and it is weldable and easily formable. Aluminum 6061 is used to produce all forms of aluminum structural shapes, including angles, beams, channels, I beams, T shapes, and radius and tapered corners, all of which are referred to as American Standard beams and channels.
Aluminum 6063 has high tensile strength, good corrosion resistance, and excellent finishing qualities, and it is used for aluminum extrusion. It is suitable for anodizing because it can produce smooth surfaces after forming intricate shapes and has good weldability and average machinability. Aluminum 6063 is called architectural aluminum since it is widely used for railings, window and door frames, roofs, and balustrades.
Aluminum 6262 is a free-machining alloy with excellent mechanical strength and corrosion resistance.
7000 Series
7000 series aluminum grades contain 0.8-8.2% zinc as the primary alloying element. This series comprises some of the highest-strength aluminum alloys. The 7000 series grades are heat treatable; solution heat treatment followed by aging can be performed to increase their yield strength. The precipitation of MgZn2 and Mg3Zn3Al2t intermetallic compounds hardens the alloy. The 7000 series grades have high corrosion resistance, which is enhanced by the addition of copper. Most grades in this series are not weldable due to their susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking and hot cracking.

Aluminum 7075 is a high-performance alloy with one of the highest strengths among the aluminum grades. It is harder, has higher tensile strength than Aluminum 6061, and can withstand prolonged periods of stress. Aluminum 7075 is referred to as the aircraft or aerospace alloy because of its high strength and resistance to stress. It was originally developed during World War II as a method for producing battleships.
Cast Aluminum
Cast aluminum is made from bauxite dissolved in caustic soda, causing the alumina to crystallize and settle to the bottom of the container. The alumina is broken down using an electric current that separates the aluminum from the oxygen. The aluminum from the process is sent to a casting house to remove impurities and to be formed in pure aluminum billets.

Once the aluminum has been purified and shaped into billets, it is melted into a molten form and mixed with its alloying elements. Finally, in different percentages, the mixture of aluminum and alloys is poured into molds to produce products or shaped for further processing.

Cast aluminum alloys have lower tensile strength than wrought aluminum due to the defects from the molding process; it is susceptible to cracking and shrinkage. Despite this, cast aluminum is a cost-effective material that can be formed into a wide variety of shapes. In its molten form, cast aluminum easily takes on the shape and form of the mold, filling every portion and crevice.

A four-digit code that includes a decimal value is assigned to each cast aluminum grade:

The first digit indicates the primary alloying element of the grade or series.
The second and third digits are arbitrary except for the 1XX.X series. For these series, these digits indicate the purity of the pure aluminum alloy.
The last digit indicates whether the alloy is a casting (“.0”) or an ingot (“.1” or “.2”).
Cast Aluminum Alloys
Grade Composition (wt%) Tensile Strength (MPa) Yield Strength (MPa)
1XX.X 99.00%-99.99% Aluminum 131-448 28-152
2XX.X 4.00%-460% Copper 131-276 90-345
3XX.X 5.00%-17.00% Silicon 117-172 66-172
4XX.X 5.00%-12.00% Silicon 117-172 41-48
5XX.X 5.00%-12.00% Magnesium 131-448 62-152
6XX.X Not Used
7XX.X 6.20%-7.50% Zinc 207-379 117-310
The following are the cast aluminum alloy series:

1XX.X Series
1XX.X series aluminum grades have high electrical and thermal conductivity, good weldability, and excellent corrosion resistance and finishing properties.

2XX.X Series
2XX.X series aluminum grades are heat-treatable. They have high strength and low fluidity. However, they have low corrosion resistance and ductility and are susceptible to hot cracking.

3XX.X Series
3XX.X series aluminum grades are heat-treatable. They have high strength and good wear and cracking resistance. However, the increased copper content can make the grade less resistant to corrosion. They also have lower ductility.

4XX.X Series
4XX.X series aluminum grades are non-heat-treatable and have moderate strength. They have good machinability due to their high ductility. They also have good impact resistance, corrosion resistance, and casting properties.

5XX.X Series
5XX.X series aluminum grades are non-heat-treatable. However, they have good corrosion resistance and an attractive appearance when anodized. In addition, they have moderate-to-high strength, good machinability, and casting properties.

7XX.X Series
7XX.X series aluminum grades are heat-treatable. They have high strength, good corrosion resistance, dimensional stability, and good finishing qualities. However, they have poor casting properties.

8XX.X Series
8XX.X series aluminum grades are non-heat-treatable. They have good machinability and wear resistance due to their low coefficient of friction. However, they have low strength.

Temper Designations of Aluminum Alloys
The temper designation system is useful in determining the response of a certain alloy to welding and other fabrication processes, which depends on the strengthening and hardening processes it has undergone. This system is used by both wrought and cast aluminum alloys.

The temper designation of an aluminum alloy is composed of a capital letter followed by a number or numbers for strain-hardened and thermally treated alloys. It is separated by a hyphen from the alloy numbering (e.g., 5052-H32).

The first character in a temper designation indicates the main classification of treatment.
For strain-hardened alloys, the first and second digits indicate the operation after strain hardening and the degree of strain hardening, respectively.
For thermally-treated alloys, the first digit indicates the thermal treatment condition.
Letter Treatment
F As fabricated alloys, no treatment was performed.
O Annealed
H Strain-hardened or cold-worked
W Solution heat-treated
T Thermally treated

Chapter 3: Applications of Aluminum Grades
The abundance of aluminum has made it one of the most used metals due to its many positive properties and the ability to recycle it. There is a use for every grade of aluminum, from cookware to the superstructure of high-rise buildings. Since aluminum can be shaped, bent, formed, and welded into innumerable configurations, it is commonly the first metal chosen as a structural metal.

Aluminum Coils
Although flat, thick pieces of aluminum are available for shipping, aluminum coils are widely used to store and ship aluminum. They have a hollow core wrapped with aluminum. Aluminum coils come in several different lengths, widths, and thicknesses. All different alloyed grades are produced in coils and shipped for manufacturing purposes.

Aluminum coils can be painted, diamond coated, or heat treated. They are durable and able to withstand constant use and abuse. The only restriction regarding aluminum coils is their thickness, with certain grades too thick to wrap around the core.

Coiled aluminum is an essential part of several industrial processes, including the manufacture of air conditioners, automobiles, aircraft, furniture, cases, and construction materials. In metalworking, aluminum coils are placed at the beginning of the process and have the aluminum material fed into progressive metal shaping machines.

Wrought Aluminum Grades
Aluminum 1100 is used in fin stocks, heat exchangers, and heat sinks due to its high thermal conductivity. It is cold worked at or near room temperature. Series 1100 is one of the softest aluminums; it is shaped by spinning, stamping, and drawing processes without the use of heat. The shapes produced include foil, plates, round bars, rods, sheets, strips, and wire.

Series 1100 aluminum is used to produce rivets, deep-drawn parts (e.g., pots or kitchen sinks), railroad tank cars, and reflectors. In addition, its conductivity makes it suitable for electrical applications.

Aluminum Heat Sink

Aluminum 2011 is used in the production of machines and automotive parts, weapons, munitions, fasteners, pipe and tube fittings, and atomizer parts. It has high mechanical strength that makes it easy to machine. Series 2011 is a free machining alloy (FMA) that can be formed using a lathe.

Its excellent machining capabilities make it possible to use series 2011 to create complex and intricate parts with precision details. Its poor corrosion resistance is overcome by anodization, which provides exceptional surface protection. Although aluminum 2011 is not weldable, the precise details it can produce through machining remove any need for welding.

Aluminum Screw Machine Products

Aluminum 2024 is the best aluminum grade for aircraft and aerospace applications. It is the best-known of the high-strength aluminum alloys, with excellent fatigue resistance that makes it ideal for aircraft manufacturing. Aluminum 2024 is used in applications where there is a need for a good strength-to-weight ratio as well as a high smooth finish.

The unique properties of aluminum 2024 make it possible to be annealed and heat treated, unlike many of their other aluminum alloys. Regardless of this ability, as with series 2011, aluminum 2024 cannot be arc or gas welded but can be spot, seam, or flash welded.

As with series 2011, aluminum 2024 has very low corrosion resistance that can be compensated for with anodization or clad forming with a surface layer of pure aluminum. As a result, it is widely used in marine equipment, wing tension members, bolts, nuts, hydraulic valve parts, gears, shafts, couplings, and pistons.

Aluminum Aircraft Propeller

Aluminum 3003 is used in heat exchangers, pressure vessels, storage tanks, and fuel tanks. In addition, it can be used in food-handling instruments such as cooking utensils, pans, pots, ice cube traps, and refrigerator panels. It is also manufactured into building products such as roofs, sidings, gutters, garage doors, insulation panels, and downspouts.

Aluminum PotAluminum Insulation

Aluminum 5005 is used as a construction material in roofing, sidings, and furniture and as an electric conductor. It is also used in chemical and food handling equipment, HVAC equipment, tanks, vessels, and high-strength foils. Due to its bright appearance, it is helpful in decorative applications.

Aluminum Roofing

Aluminum 5083 is used in shipbuilding, vehicles, rail cars, pressure vessels, and drilling rigs.

Aluminum 5052 is used in food processing equipment, cooking utensils, heat exchangers, and chemical storage tanks. This grade is used in automobile and truck panels and components, flooring panels, rivets, wires, treadplates, and containers.

Aluminum Rivets

Aluminum 6061 can be made into tubes, beams, and angles with rounded corners. They are used in pipelines, tank fittings, railroad cars, trucks, marine components, and furniture.

Aluminum Beams

Aluminum 6063 is widely used in architectural applications, such as stair rails, furniture, window frames, doors, and sign frames. They can also be made into tubes, beams, angles, and channels.

Aluminum Door Frames

Aluminum 6262 is used in screw machine products, hinge pins, knobs, nuts, couplings, valves, marine fittings, pipeline fittings, and decorative hardware.

Aluminum 7075 is preferable in aerospace and aircraft applications due to its high strength. It is also used in bike parts, competitive sporting equipment, molds, and industrial tooling.

Aluminum Track Bike

Cast Aluminum Series
The 1XX.X series are manufactured into electrical rotors.

The 2XX.X series are used in making automotive and aircraft engine cylinder heads, diesel engine pistons, bearings, and exhaust system parts.

The 3XX.X series are used in compressor and pump parts, automotive cylinder blocks and heads, motor parts, and marine and aircraft castings.

The 4XX.X series are used in pump casings, pots, pans, and dental equipment.

The 5XX.X series are used for decorative architectural applications and sand casting parts.

The 7XX.X series are used in automotive parts and mining equipment.

The 8XX.X series are used in slide bearings and bushings.

Aluminum Linear Guide

Chapter 4: Aluminum Forms
Aluminum products can come in the following forms:

Aluminum Foils
Aluminum foils are manufactured by flattening and reducing the thickness of aluminum sheets using a roll mill. The thickness of aluminum foils ranges from 0.006 to 0.2 mm (or from 6 to 200 microns). Aluminum foils are malleable, pliable, and easily bent and wrapped around objects. They are used as packaging and electromagnetic shielding material, as well as in other industrial applications.

Aluminum Foil

Aluminum foil is used as thermal insulation material, decoration, and molds. It comes in different tempers that have their own process properties. The tempering for aluminum foil is referred to as its HXX state. The H in the tempering identification is in reference to the work hardening used to improve the strength of the foil. After the H are two or three numbers, with the first number being the type of tempering.

H1 – Strain hardened by cold working
H2 – Strain hardened and partially annealed
H3 – Strain hardened and stabilized
The second digit of the HXX code is the degree of strain hardening.

Aluminum Strain Hardening
Temper Type
Hx2 Quarter Hard
Hx4 Half Hard
Hx6 Three Quarters Hard
Hx8 Full Hard
Hx9 Extra Hard
A third digit may be assigned for wrought products, with H111, H311, and H321 indicating that the aluminum foil was strain hardened less than usual.

Aluminum Bars
Aluminum bars are available in round, flat, hexagonal, and square shapes and come in different degrees of thickness, width, and diameters. The process for selecting aluminum bars is based on the grade of aluminum that will fit the needs of an application since each grade has different strength, machinability, and corrosion resistance.

Aluminum Bars Report Card

Minimum Strength in KSI
Alloy Machinability Ultimate Yield Corrosion Resistance
2011-T3 A++ 45 38 C
6262-T6511 B 42 35 A
2017-T4, T451 A 55 32 C
2024-T4, T351 A 62 42 C
6061-T6-T651 B 42 35 A
7075-T6, T651 A 77 66 C
6063-T6 C 30 25 A
063-T5 D 21 15 A
Aluminum bars are produced using extrusion, which includes passing an annealed aluminum billet, under pressure, through a die using compressive force. As the billet is forced through the die, it takes on the die’s profile. Extrusion produces round, rectangular, square, and hexagonal bars.

Aluminum Bar Extrusion

Aluminum Bars

Aluminum Pipe
Aluminum pipe has a tubular shape that is used in the movement and flow of liquids and gases. As with all forms of aluminum, aluminum pipe is lightweight and corrosion resistant and manufactured using the extrusion process that produces seamless aluminum pipe. The primary shapes of aluminum pipe are round and square with types that are custom designed to fit a specific application.

Aluminum Pipes

The types of aluminum used for the production of aluminum pipe is high strength hard aluminum that is heat treated to enhance its strength. It has medium plasticity in its annealing, quenching, and thermal state with good spot welding characteristics. Aluminum pile is machinable using cold working and quenching and may have its corrosion properties improved with anodizing and coating.

There are an endless number of uses for aluminum pipe that include aviation, the auto industry, chemical processing, agriculture, and ship building. Its lightweight, good strength, and conductivity make it ideal for heavy duty industrial applications. The characteristics of aluminum pipe vary according to the grade of aluminum used to produce it.

Aluminum Tubes
Although aluminum tubes have a similar appearance to aluminum pipe, they have a different purpose and function. Like aluminum pipes, aluminum tubes are long, hollow centered, rectangular or round shaped tubes. The parameters of aluminum tubing are measured by their outer diameter (OD) and wall thickness (WT), which are expressed in inches or millimeters.

Aluminum tubing is lightweight with good heat conductivity and is used for hydraulic systems, airplane fuselages, HVAC equipment, and appliances. Each of the various types of aluminum tubing are custom designed to fit the needs of specialized applications. Square tubing is used for machine parts while rectangular tubing is used for interior and exterior molding. Round tubing is ideal for structural supports and framework.

Aluminum grades 6061 and 6063 are used for the manufacture of aluminum tubing with grade 6061 having high strength and can be heat treated to improve its corrosion resistance. Grade 6063 is a low strength aluminum that is suitable for architectural accents and low strength applications.

Aluminum Sheets

Aluminum sheets are produced by rolling aluminum slabs several times under high pressure until they are thin and flat at thicknesses that vary according to the gauge of aluminum.

Aluminum Sheet Thickness for Gauges of 5052 Aluminum
Gauge Thickness Thinckness Tolerance
(0.250″ | 6.35mm) ±0.014″
(0.118″ | 4.78mm) ±0.009″
8 gauge (0.1285″ | 3.26mm) ±0.007 | ±0.18mm
10 gauge (0.102″ | 2.59mm) ±0.006 | ±0.15mm
11 gauge (0.091″ | 2.31mm) ±0.0045″
12 gauge (0.081″ | 2.06mm) ±0.0045″
14 gauge (0.064″ | 1.63mm) ±0.0040″
16 gauge (0.051″ | 1.30mm) ±0.0035″
18 gauge (0.040″ | 1.02mm) ±0.0035″
20 gauge (0.032″ | 0.81mm) ±0.0030″
Aluminum sheets are popular due to their lightweight, excellent strength, and their ability to endure demanding and harsh conditions. Despite their lightweight and easy maneuverability, aluminum sheets are exceptionally durable, which makes them an ideal choice for industries that produce products that require less weight.

A primary application for aluminum sheets is the production of cans and packaging materials. Their formability and corrosion resistance makes them an excellent choice for beverage cans, food containers, and other packaging solutions. The tight seal created by aluminum preserves the freshness and quality of the packaged contents. The recyclability of aluminum contributes to its widespread use in the packaging industry.

The automotive industry benefits from the strength-to-weight ratio of aluminum sheets to enhance fuel efficiency and vehicle performance. Aluminum sheets are used for body panels, hoods, doors, and structural components, providing a lightweight solution without compromising safety and durability. A popular use for aluminum sheets is in the manufacture of cookware and construction, such as roofing, siding, and gutters.


Aluminum Plates

Aluminum plates are also produced using a rolling process. They are thicker than aluminum sheets and are available in different thicknesses depending on the gauge and grade of aluminum. The thicknesses of aluminum plates gives them greater strength and rigidity, making them suitable for heavy-duty applications.

The properties of aluminum plates makes them ideal for use in the transportation, aerospace, aircraft, marine, and military industries as structural supports, body panels, wings, and fuselage sections. Their strength-to-weight ratio contributes to fuel efficiency and performance. The corrosion resistance and durability of aluminum plates makes them suitable for demanding environments such as storage tanks, fuel tanks, railcars, trailers, and truck beds.


Aluminum Wires
Aluminum wires are manufactured using a process called wire drawing, which involves pulling aluminum ingots through a die to reduce the diameter of the ingot while increasing its length. The electrical conductivity and strength-to-weight ratio of aluminum wire makes it useful as an alternative to copper in some electrical applications. The downside to using aluminum wire for electrical applications is its tendency to easily become oxidized, resulting in the deterioration of the wiring and becoming a potential fire hazard.

Precautions are available to mitigate the risks associated with aluminum wire oxidation. A common approach is using aluminum alloy wires that are designed to improve aluminum’s resistance to oxidation and enhance its overall performance. Aluminum alloys have improved corrosion resistance and a longer lifespan compared to pure aluminum wires.

As with all forms of wiring, the selection of the correct installation is critical to the successful use of aluminum wire. This includes using connectors specially designed for aluminum wires along with insulation for protection against moisture and environmental factors.

Aluminum Cables

Aluminum Brazing

Brazing is a metal joining process where the base metal is joined by heating aluminum brazing rods or fillers. When the aluminum reaches its melting point, it is used to attach metal pieces or fill cracks, holes, and gaps. Brazing has become popular due to its exceptional strength and resistance to destruction.

Four forms of brazing are torch, dip, fluxless vacuum, and furnace. With torch brazing, a propane or gas torch is used to heat the metal. In dip brazing, the fill metal is poured around the area to be joined and dipped in a bath. With fluxless vacuum brazing, flux from the brazing process is removed with water or a chemical bath. Finally, furnace brazing involves placing the metals in a furnace. It is a process that has to be closely monitored.

Brazing creates strong, solid joints at lower temperatures than those used for welding. The base metal in the process remains unchanged and keeps its base properties. Brazing makes it possible to easily join dissimilar metals, leaving a smooth and aesthetically appealing surface. In manufacturing processes, brazing is fully automated and takes less time than welding.

Aluminum is the most abundant metal on the Earth’s crust. Generally, aluminum alloys have a high strength-to-weight ratio, high ductility, good electrical and thermal conductivity, and good corrosion resistance. They are also non-sparking, non-magnetic, and easily recyclable.
Aluminum alloys are divided into wrought aluminum and cast aluminum alloys. These groups have different designation systems.
Wrought aluminum is produced by pouring molten aluminum and its alloying elements over a cast, while cast aluminum undergoes mechanical processes such as forging, rolling, and extrusion.
Cast aluminum is produced by a casting process. It has lower strength than wrought aluminum, but it is more cost-effective.
Aluminum alloys may be heat-treatable or non-heat-treatable.
The temper designation system indicates the mechanical process that the alloy has undergone. It is helpful in determining the response of the aluminum alloy to fabrication processes.
Aluminum alloys have a wide range of applications.
Aluminum is commercially sold in foils, bars, tubes, pipes, sheets, plates, and wires.


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