titanium

What is Natural titanium?Types and Application?

Natural Titanium is a chemical element; it has symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Found in nature only as an oxide, it can be reduced to produce a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength, resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

Natural Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, Great Britain, by William Gregor in 1791 and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of minerals, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth’s crust and lithosphere; it is found in almost all living things, as well as bodies of water, rocks, and soils.[9] The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes. The most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is used in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (), which is used as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.

Natural Titanium can be alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture (farming), medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting goods, jewelry, mobile phones, and other applications.

 

Different Types of Titanium

There are several ways to classify the different types of titanium alloys—by strength, corrosion resistance, and high-temperature service. Here we’ll use titanium phases to compare the different types of titanium alloys and how they vary in their strength, weldability, and heat-treatability.

Types of Titanium AlloysTitanium is an allotropic element, meaning it can exist in two or more different structural forms. Titanium has two dominant allotropic phases—alpha and beta (α+β)—that determine the different properties of titanium alloys. The alpha alloys phase is a close-packed hexagonal structure, and the beta alloys phase is a body-centered cubic structure.

Aluminum, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon added to titanium induce the alpha phase. Vanadium, molybdenum, iron, chromium, and manganese added to titanium induce the beta alloys phase. Alpha alloys and beta titanium alloys include combinations of elements used to induce the alpha and beta phases. The table below compares some of the key characteristics that would help guide the selection of the different types of titanium for fabricating a component or structure.

Alpha Alloys Alpha-Beta Alloys Beta Alloys
Heat-Treatable no yes yes
Weldability very good most are weldable generally weldable
Strength low to medium medium to high highest
High-Temperature Creep Resistance optimum not as good as alpha limited to intermediate temperatures

The various amounts of elements that can be combined with commercially pure titanium grades result in an overwhelming number of different types of titanium to choose from. Ti-6Al-4V is an alpha-beta titanium alloy and one of the most commonly used titanium alloys. The primary alloying elements of Ti-6Al-4V are aluminum and vanadium, giving these alpha-beta alloys low density and excellent corrosion resistance.

 

Applications Of  natural titanium

A titanium cylinder of quality “grade 2”
Titanium is used in steel as an alloying element (ferro-titanium) to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content, Titanium is often alloyed with aluminium (to refine grain size), vanadium, copper (to harden), iron, manganese, molybdenum, and other metals. Titanium mill products (sheet, plate, bar, wire, forgings, castings) find application in industrial, aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Powdered titanium is used in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles.

Pigments, additives, and coatings
Watch glass on a black surface with a small portion of white powder
Titanium dioxide is the most commonly used compound of titanium.
About 95% of all titanium ore is destined for refinement into titanium dioxide (TiO
2), an intensely white permanent pigment used in paints, paper, toothpaste, and plastics.It is also used in cement, in gemstones, as an optical opacifier in paper,and a strengthening agent in graphite composite fishing rods and golf clubs.

TiO
2 pigment is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very opaque: it imparts a pure and brilliant white color to the brown or grey chemicals that form the majority of household plastics.[11] In nature, this compound is found in the minerals anatase, brookite, and rutile. Paint made with titanium dioxide does well in severe temperatures and marine environments.[11] Pure titanium dioxide has a very high index of refraction and an optical dispersion higher than diamond. In addition to being a very important pigment, titanium dioxide is also used in sunscreens.[16]

Aerospace and marine

Lockheed A-12, first plane made of 93% titanium
Because titanium alloys have high tensile strength to density ratio, high corrosion resistance,fatigue resistance, high crack resistance, and ability to withstand moderately high temperatures without creeping, they are used in aircraft, armor plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles. For these applications, titanium is alloyed with aluminium, zirconium, nickel,vanadium, and other elements to manufacture a variety of components including critical structural parts, landing gear, firewalls, exhaust ducts (helicopters), and hydraulic systems. In fact, about two thirds of all titanium metal produced is used in aircraft engines and frames.The titanium 6AL-4V alloy accounts for almost 50% of all alloys used in aircraft applications.

The Lockheed A-12 and the SR-71 “Blackbird” were two of the first aircraft frames where titanium was used, paving the way for much wider use in modern military and commercial aircraft. A large amount of titanium mill products are used in the production of many aircraft, such as (following values are amount of raw mill products used, only a fraction of this ends up in the finished aircraft): 116 metric tons are used in the Boeing 787, 77 in the Airbus A380, 59 in the Boeing 777, 45 in the Boeing 747, 32 in the Airbus A340, 18 in the Boeing 737, 18 in the Airbus A330, and 12 in the Airbus A320.[88] In aero engine applications, titanium is used for rotors, compressor blades, hydraulic system components, and nacelles.[citation needed] An early use in jet engines was for the Orenda Iroquois in the 1950s.[better source needed

Because titanium is resistant to corrosion by sea water, it is used to make propeller shafts, rigging, heat exchangers in desalination plants,heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and leader, and divers’ knives. Titanium is used in the housings and components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for science and military. The former Soviet Union developed techniques for making submarines with hulls of titanium alloys,[citation needed] forging titanium in huge vacuum tubes.

Industrial

Titanium sealing stamps
Welded titanium pipe and process equipment (heat exchangers, tanks, process vessels, valves) are used in the chemical and petrochemical industries primarily for corrosion resistance. Specific alloys are used in oil and gas downhole applications and nickel hydrometallurgy for their high strength (e. g.: titanium beta C alloy), corrosion resistance, or both. The pulp and paper industry uses titanium in process equipment exposed to corrosive media, such as sodium hypochlorite or wet chlorine gas (in the bleachery). Other applications include ultrasonic welding, wave soldering,[91] and sputtering targets.

Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a colorless liquid, is important as an intermediate in the process of making TiO2 and is also used to produce the Ziegler–Natta catalyst. Titanium tetrachloride is also used to iridize glass and, because it fumes strongly in moist air, it is used to make smoke screens.

Consumer and architectural

Tweeter loudspeaker driver with a membrane with 25 mm diameter made from titanium; from a JBL TI 5000 loudspeaker box, c.
Titanium metal is used in automotive applications, particularly in automobile and motorcycle racing where low weight and high strength and rigidity are critical.[93](p 141) The metal is generally too expensive for the general consumer market, though some late model Corvettes have been manufactured with titanium exhausts,[94] and a Corvette Z06’s LT4 supercharged engine uses lightweight, solid titanium intake valves for greater strength and resistance to heat.

Titanium is used in many sporting goods: tennis rackets, golf clubs, lacrosse stick shafts; cricket, hockey, lacrosse, and football helmet grills, and bicycle frames and components. Although not a mainstream material for bicycle production, titanium bikes have been used by racing teams and adventure cyclists.

Titanium alloys are used in spectacle frames that are rather expensive but highly durable, long lasting, light weight, and cause no skin allergies. Titanium is a common material for backpacking cookware and eating utensils. Though more expensive than traditional steel or aluminium alternatives, titanium products can be significantly lighter without compromising strength. Titanium horseshoes are preferred to steel by farriers because they are lighter and more durable.

Titanium cladding of Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao
Titanium has occasionally been used in architecture. The 42.5 m (139 ft) Monument to Yuri Gagarin, the first man to travel in space (55°42′29.7″N 37°34′57.2″E), as well as the 110 m (360 ft) Monument to the Conquerors of Space on top of the Cosmonaut Museum in Moscow are made of titanium for the metal’s attractive color and association with rocketry. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and the Cerritos Millennium Library were the first buildings in Europe and North America, respectively, to be sheathed in titanium panels.[86] Titanium sheathing was used in the Frederic C. Hamilton Building in Denver, Colorado.

Because of titanium’s superior strength and light weight relative to other metals (steel, stainless steel, and aluminium), and because of recent advances in metalworking techniques, its use has become more widespread in the manufacture of firearms. Primary uses include pistol frames and revolver cylinders. For the same reasons, it is used in the body of some laptop computers (for example, in Apple’s PowerBook G4).

In 2023, Apple launched the iPhone 15 Pro, which uses a titanium enclosure.

Some upmarket lightweight and corrosion-resistant tools, such as shovels, knife handles and flashlights, are made of titanium or titanium alloys.

Jewelry

Relation between voltage and color for anodized titanium
Because of its durability, titanium has become more popular for designer jewelry (particularly, titanium rings). Its inertness makes it a good choice for those with allergies or those who will be wearing the jewelry in environments such as swimming pools. Titanium is also alloyed with gold to produce an alloy that can be marketed as 24-karat gold because the 1% of alloyed Ti is insufficient to require a lesser mark. The resulting alloy is roughly the hardness of 14-karat gold and is more durable than pure 24-karat gold.

Titanium’s durability, light weight, and dent and corrosion resistance make it useful for watch cases.Some artists work with titanium to produce sculptures, decorative objects and furniture.

Titanium may be anodized to vary the thickness of the surface oxide layer, causing optical interference fringes and a variety of bright colors.[106] With this coloration and chemical inertness, titanium is a popular metal for body piercing.

Titanium has a minor use in dedicated non-circulating coins and medals. In 1999, Gibraltar released the world’s first titanium coin for the millennium celebration.[108] The Gold Coast Titans, an Australian rugby league team, award a medal of pure titanium to their player of the year.

Medical
Main article: Titanium biocompatibility
Because titanium is biocompatible (non-toxic and not rejected by the body), it has many medical uses, including surgical implements and implants, such as hip balls and sockets (joint replacement) and dental implants that can stay in place for up to 20 years. The titanium is often alloyed with about 4% aluminium or 6% Al and 4% vanadium.

Medical screws and plate used to repair wrist fractures. Scale is in centimeters.
Titanium has the inherent ability to osseointegrate, enabling use in dental implants that can last for over 30 years. This property is also useful for orthopedic implant applications. These benefit from titanium’s lower modulus of elasticity (Young’s modulus) to more closely match that of the bone that such devices are intended to repair. As a result, skeletal loads are more evenly shared between bone and implant, leading to a lower incidence of bone degradation due to stress shielding and periprosthetic bone fractures, which occur at the boundaries of orthopedic implants. However, titanium alloys’ stiffness is still more than twice that of bone, so adjacent bone bears a greatly reduced load and may deteriorate.

Because titanium is non-ferromagnetic, patients with titanium implants can be safely examined with magnetic resonance imaging (convenient for long-term implants). Preparing titanium for implantation in the body involves subjecting it to a high-temperature plasma arc which removes the surface atoms, exposing fresh titanium that is instantly oxidized.[54]

Modern advancements in additive manufacturing techniques have increased potential for titanium use in orthopedic implant applications. Complex implant scaffold designs can be 3D-printed using titanium alloys, which allows for more patient-specific applications and increased implant osseointegration.

Titanium is used for the surgical instruments used in image-guided surgery, as well as wheelchairs, crutches, and any other products where high strength and low weight are desirable.[115]

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely used in electronics and the delivery of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.try

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